Laser is increasingly popular in solving various skin problems, such as for excision of skin tumors, skin rejuvenation, removal of unwanted hair, tattoo removal, treatment of vascular disorders and a variety of skin pigmentation disorders. Pigmentation disorders that have been reported can be treated with laser, among others: lentigo, ephelides (freckles), café au lait macules, melasma, and a variety of nevus; although the effectiveness and side effects vary mainly for Fitzpatrick skin.
In addition to laser treatment options that are relatively expensive, and often cannot cope laser pigmentation abnormalities in one visit. Effectiveness of laser therapy depends on several factors, such as: the type of laser used, experience in handling, and precision pigmentation disorders diagnosis. The use of lasers to treat pigmentation disorders is based on the principle of selective photothermolysis as proposed by Anderson and Parrish namely in the form of the chromophore, precision laser wavelength used, a shorter duration of TRT (thermal relaxation time) as well as the adequacy fluence. Now the laser treatment is the most recommended treatment in overcoming skin problems.
Laser energy absorption by melanin decreases with increasing wavelength of light, so that the type of laser used is a laser with a wavelength that can destroy melanin in melanocytes and keratinocytes selectively as type Q (quality). Mechanisms of pigmentation disorders with laser therapy of this type are known as primary pigment removal. Q-switched laser implies that it is able to store very high energy through the optical shutter, so that when the laser is fired into a target, the device will emit very high energy, i.e. 109 watts in a nano second. There are various types of Q-switched lasers, such as: laser QS Nd: YAG 1064 nm, frequency doubled QS Nd: YAG 532 nm, 694 nm laser Ruby QS and QS Alexandrite laser 755 nm.1-5 Q-switched laser.